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I had a similar issue but was able to resolve it. There seemed to be a connection to the Linux driver for my Nvidia graphics card. After uninstalling the proprietary Nvidia driver (and using the Nouveau driver instead), the Office 2016 installation finished successfully. After this, I reinstalled the Nvidia driver and did not encounter any further problems.
Cannot install Office 2016 either. My platform is Crossover 17 on Fedora 27.
I downloaded the traditional Chinese version of the .img file from Microsoft website (stores.office.com) and burnt it into DVD. (The installation method with ms-windows-store:// URL don't work with CrossOver.)
I started CrossOver 17 to install MS Office 2016 from DVD.
However, the installation process failed. It shows "很抱歉，發生問題。" which means "Sorry, problem occurred." in English.
So sad that CrossOver cannot work.
save below in a file "download.bat"
save below in a file "install.bat"
save below as cx_config_32.xml
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